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Experimental confirmation of the predicted shallow donor hydrogen state in zinc oxide

Authors: S. F. J. Cox, E. A. Davis, S. P. Cottrell, P. J. C. King, J. S. Lord, J. M. Gil, H. V. Alberto, R. C. Vil√£o, J. Piroto Duarte, N. Ayres de Campos, A. Weidinger, R. L. Lichti, S. J. C. Irvine

Ref.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2601-2604 (2001)

Abstract: We confirm the recent prediction that interstitial protium may act as a shallow donor in zinc oxide, by direct spectroscopic observation of its muonium counterpart. On implantation into ZnO, positive muons -chemically analogous to protons in this context - form paramagnetic centers below about 40 K. The muon-electron contact hyperfine interaction, as well as the temperature and activation energy for ionization, imply a shallow level. Similar results for the cadmium chalcogenides suggest that such shallow donor states are generic to the II-VI compounds. The donor level depths should serve as a guide for the electrical activity of interstitial hydrogen.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.2601