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Sunspots Identification Through Mathematical Morphology

Authors: Bourgeois, S; Barata, T; Erdélyi, R; Gafeira, R; Oliveira, O

Ref.: Sol. Phys. 299(2), 10 (2024)

Abstract: The implementation of automated methods for sunspot detection is essential to obtain better objectivity, efficiency, and accuracy in identifying sunspots and analysing their morphological properties. A desired application is the contouring of sunspots. In this work, we construct sunspot contours from Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/ Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager intensity images by means of an automated method based on development and application of mathematical morphology. The method is validated qualitatively - the resulting contours accurately delimit sunspots. Here, it is applied to high-resolution data (SDO intensitygrams) and validated quantitatively by illustrating a good agreement between the measured sunspot areas and the ones provided by two standard reference catalogues. The method appears to be robust for sunspot identification, and our analysis suggests its application to more complex and irregular-shaped solar structures, such as polarity inversion lines inside delta-sunspots.

DOI: 10.1007/s11207-023-02243-1